Cholesterol and Cardiovascular BioRegulation and Support This Proprietary formula helps support LDL and HDL Cholesterol levels. The ingredients in this homeopathic cholesterol remedy have shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce triglyceride levels, enhance circulation and reduce clotting potential. In veggie capsules.
Cholesterol and Cardiovascular BioRegulation and Support
This Proprietary formula helps support LDL and HDL Cholesterol levels. These ingredients have shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce triglyceride levels, enhance circulation and reduce clotting potential. In veggie capsules.
- Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
- Red Yeast Rice Extract
- Guggul Resin Extract
- Inositol Hexanicotinate
- Phosphatidylcholine Complex
- Hawthorn Berry Extract
- Policosanol Complex
Niacin to boost your HDL, ‘good,’ cholesterol
Niacin is an important B vitamin that may raise your HDL, “good,” cholesterol. Find out if you should talk to your doctor about taking niacin alone or with cholesterol medications. Niacin lowers the total cholesterol, “bad” LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, while raising the “good” HDL-cholesterol level.
By Mayo Clinic staff
Niacin, a B vitamin, has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the “good” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol, in your bloodstream. Although niacin is readily available and effective in our homeopathic cholesterol remedy, it hasn’t gotten much attention compared to other cholesterol drugs.
A lot of the attention regarding cholesterol has been focused on lowering your low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol. That’s still an important goal. But boosting your HDL level can be just as important as lowering your LDL cholesterol. Taking niacin— either by itself or along with other cholesterol-lowering medication — may help control your total cholesterol level.
Red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus)
Red yeast rice is the product of yeast ( Monascus purpureus ) grown on rice, and is served as a dietary staple in some Asian countries. It contains several compounds collectively known as monacolins, substances known to inhibit cholesterol synthesis. One of these, “monacolin K,” is a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, and is also known as mevinolin or lovastatin (Mevacor®, a drug produced by Merck & Co., Inc).
Red yeast rice extract has been sold as a natural cholesterol-lowering agent in over the counter supplements, such as Cholestin TM (Pharmanex, Inc). However, there has been legal and industrial dispute as to whether red yeast rice is a drug or a dietary supplement, involving the manufacturer, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the pharmaceutical industry (particularly producers of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor prescription drugs or “statins”).
The use of red yeast rice in China was first documented in the Tang Dynasty in 800 A.D. A detailed description of its manufacture is found in the ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia, Ben Cao Gang Mu-Dan Shi Bu Yi, published during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In this text, red yeast rice is proposed to be a mild aid for gastric problems (indigestion, diarrhea), blood circulation, and spleen and stomach health. Red yeast rice in a dried, powdered form is called Zhi Tai. When extracted with alcohol it is called Xue Zhi Kang.
Benefits of Curcumin
Curcumin, also known as turmeric root, an ancient spice in the ginger family, is gaining attention for its positive impact on a number of diseases, including cholesterol reduction. Scientific evidence has been building since the mid-1980s of curcumin’s potential cholesterol-lowering capabilities.
For example, animals fed small doses of curcumin had their cholesterol levels drop by one half (50%) over those that did not receive curcumin. Curcumin reduces cholesterol by interfering with intestinal cholesterol uptake, increasing the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, and increasing the excretion of bile acids, according to the International Journal of Vitamin Nutritional Research (1991, 61:364-69).
The 1992 Indian Journal of Physiology reported that ten human volunteers taking curcumin showed a 29% increase in beneficial HDL cholesterol in only 7 days. Total cholesterol also fell 11.6% and lipid peroxidation was reduced by 33%.
In January of 1997, the Journal of Molecular Cell Biochemistry reported curcumin has demonstrated, in vivo, the ability to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in serum and to increase the beneficial HDL cholesterol. “Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin in diabetic rats.”
The research has continued and curcumin’s ability to lower blood cholesterol levels was reported in the April 1998 issue of Molecular Cell Biochemistry, and again, later that year, researchers in Biofactors (1998, 8:1-2, 51-57) reported that “curcumin extract may be protective in preventing lipoperoxidation of subcellular membranes.”
Curcumin also provides an additional benefit by potentially reducing the risk of cardiovascular-related disease as it inhibits platelet aggregation and significantly decreases the level of lipid (LDL) peroxidation. “Observation of curcumin’s mechanism of action shows that it blocks the formation of thromboxane A2, a
promoter of platelet aggregation, thereby inhibiting abnormal blood clot formation. Curcumin also increases a prostacyclin, a natural inhibitor of platelet aggregation” (Arzneim. Forsch., 1986, 36:715-17).
Benefits of Gugulipid (Commiphora mukul)
This powerful ancient treatment included in this homeopathic cholesterol remedy has been re-discovered by Western culture. Gugulipid is made from the resin of the commiphora mukul tree of north central India. Gugulipid (gugulesterones) has been used for thousands of years to alleviate problems associated with obesity, acne, viral infections, and other ailments.
In a study published in 1989 by the Journal of Associated Physicians-India, 125 patients receiving gugulipid showed an 11% decrease in total serum cholesterol, a drop of 16.8% in triglycerides, and a 60% increase in HDL cholesterol within 3 to 4 weeks. Patients with elevated cholesterol levels showed much greater improvement than normal patients.
The study quoted a second trial (included in the article noted above) where 205 patients receiving gugulipid at a dose rate of 25 mg administered 3 times daily showed a 70 to 80% reduction of serum cholesterol, whereas no response was found in the placebo group (Journal of Associated Physicians-India, 1989, 37:328).
A placebo-controlled trial of 40 patients with high blood-fat levels showed a serum cholesterol reduction of 21.75%, with triglycerides being reduced by 27.1% in only 3 weeks, and after continuing the study for 16 weeks it was learned that HDL cholesterol was increased by 35.8% (Journal of Associated Physicians-India, 1989, 37:328).
Guggulsterone has significant anti-inflammatory properties, although they are somewhat overshadowed by its effects on lipid metabolism. This finding supports its traditional use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Studies have shown guggulsterone to be at least as effective as the conventional medications phenylbutazone and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) for both acute and chronic types of inflammation in animal models.
Platelet stickiness appears to be reduced by guggul, which is desirable for decreasing the risk of coronary artery disease. Guggul may also promote fibrinolysis (dissolving the fibrin in blood clots) and act as an antioxidant. More research is warranted for these properties. They have potential benefits in the prevention of strokes and embolisms.
Studies have shown guggulsterone to have approximately the same effectiveness as the antibiotic tetracycline for the treatment of nodulocystic acne. It decreases inflammation and lowers the risk of recurrence of the condition. Guggul is also thought to have astringent, antiseptic, and antisuppurative (preventing pus formation) qualities that lend themselves to the treatment of this severe, and sometimes scarring, form of acne.
The thyroid gland is stimulated by guggulsterone. Guggul can be problematic for people being treated for thyroid conditions. Since guggul stimulates production of thyroid hormone, it may alter the dosage requirements for thyroid replacement medication. It can also reduce the availability and effectiveness of the heart medications propranolol (Inderal) and diltiazem (Cardizem). Patients should consult a health care practitioner before taking guggul along with any other herbs or medications. You will need to lower medication through careful testing and monitoring.
Inositol Hexanicotinate (IHN)
What is IHN?
First, don’t confuse IHN with “timed-released” or “sustained-release” niacin. These formulations are simply niacin packaged to dissolve more slowly and hence, be released more slowly into the blood stream. Although sustained-release niacin formulations usually do what they promise, they have been associated with an increased risk of liver toxicity,10 elevated liver fatty acids, and even liver transplants! Chemically, a molecule of IHN is simply six molecules of niacin attached to a single molecule of inositol.11
When it enters the body, IHN is broken down into its component parts, releasing niacin into the blood stream. Here it is free to perform its well-known anticholesterolemic act, which includes inhibited lipolysis, improved peripheral glucose utilization, and reduced levels of glycolysis products in serum.12 The addition of inositol, however, seems to slow the metabolism of the nicotinate molecules. This has two important beneficial effects:11
- It prevents the flush that typically occurs with the rapid introduction of high doses of niacin, and
- It extends the anticholesterolemic effect of the niacin over a longer period of time. In one study, it took 10 hours before the maximum effect of an intravenous dose was reached. This is an important addition to any homeopathic cholesterol remedy.
Four Decades of Research
Studies showing that IHN improves lipid profiles date back as far as the early 1960s.11,13,14 In an in vitro study using fat cells from rats, IHN was found to be more effective than niacin in reducing hypercholesterolemia.15 When given to rabbits on a fatty diet, IHN resulted in normalization of all lipid fractions, including cholesterol.16
In human subjects, IHN has been shown by two research groups to produce a reduction in cholesterol that was even more profound than that produced by niacin.11,16 In a clinical study conducted in Germany, IHN was compared with niacin and other nicotinic acid derivatives for their ability to control free fatty acid levels overnight. IHN, but not niacin, was found to be capable of producing a significant
reduction in free fatty acids during the entire night. The authors suggested that IHN should be a good choice for producing a prolonged reduction in blood lipids.17
Two other German studies examined the treatment of various types of hyperlipidemias using a drug combination composed of IHN and another anticholesterol drug, clofibrate. The investigators found this drug to be quite effective in reducing levels of LDL and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein)-triglycerides, and was also effective in raising HDL levels in some types of hyperlipidemia. They emphasized that the drug was well-tolerated.18,19
“The experience that has been gained in these studies in treating peripheral circulatory disorders and dyslipidemias suggests that it is a safe and effective alternative to niacin and does not cause the flush that many people find so unpleasant”
Since virtually all the work on IHN has been carried out and published in Europe, it is not well-known in the United States. Nevertheless, the experience that has been gained in these studies in treating peripheral circulatory disorders and dyslipidemias suggests that it is a safe and effective alternative to niacin and does not cause the flush that many people find so unpleasant. So, if you’re concerned about your cholesterol levels, but you can’t tolerate the niacin flush, your next step should be IHN.
Phosphatidylcholine (derived from lecithin), a primary dietary source of choline, is composed of a phosphate group, 2 fatty acids, and choline. The composition of essential fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine determines its value in promoting health. When phosphatidylcholine is ingested, most of it is broken down into choline, glycerol free fatty acids, and the phosphate group, rather than being incorporated intact into cellular membranes.
• Although choline can be manufactured in humans from either methionine or serine, it has recently been designated an essential nutrient.
• Choline is required for the proper metabolism of fats; it facilitates the movement of fats in and out of cells. Like Vitamin B12, 5-adenosylmethionine, and Folic Acid, choline acts in the human body as a methyl donor. As such, choline is essential for proper liver function due to its key role in the lipotropic effect, i.e., the export of fat from the liver. In the absence of adequate choline, fats become trapped in the liver, where they block metabolism. Stagnation of fat and bile eventually leads to the development of more serious liver disorders such as cirrhosis.
• Choline is needed for cell membrane integrity because of the critical role it plays in the manufacture of primary components of cell membranes, such as phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin.
• Choline is essential in the synthesis of acetylcholine. Choline supplementation increases the accumulation of acetylcholine which plays a crucial role in many brain processes, including memory. (Canty, DJ and Zeisel, SH. Nutr Reviews. 52;327-339, 1994)
• Phosphatidylcholine increases the solubility of cholesterol and thereby decreases cholesterol‘s ability to induce atherosclerosis. Phosphatidylcholine aids in lowering cholesterol levels, removing cholesterol from tissue deposits, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. (Brook, JG, Linn, S, and Aviram, M. Biochem Med Metabol Biol. 35;31-39, 1986.) The high content of linoleic acid in phosphatidylcholine may be responsible for much of the benefit derived from supplementation.
Mode of Action
• Choline acts as a methyl donor, especially in liver function.
• Choline enables synthesis of acetylcholine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin.
Crataegus laevigata; Crataegus monogyna; Crataegus oxyacantha; Hagedorn; Haw; Hedgethorn; Mayblossom; Maybush; Mayflower…
Hawthorn is the name of a large group of shrubs and small trees in the genus Crataegus, family Rosaceae, characterized by their small, apple-like fruits and thorny branches. The fruits are sometimes known as ‘haws’, from which the name derived. The original name was applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the Common Hawthorn, C. monogyna, but is now applied to the entire genus. They are native to the temperate northern hemisphere. .
Used to promote the health of the circulatory system, treat angina, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia and has been found to strengthen the heart. Hawthorn is widely regarded in Europe as a safe and effective treatment for the early stages of heart disease and has been used for a number of ailments including angina, myocarditis, arteriosclerosis, nervous conditions like insomnia, and diarrhea. It has also been indicated for strengthening blood vessels, vascular insufficiency and blood clots, restoring the heart muscle wall, lowering cholesterol and to aid digestion. Hawthorn is an important component of our proprietary homeopathic cholesterol remedy.
CoQ10 Does More Than Merely Reduce Cholesterol
CoQ10 makes your cholesterol behave differently. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in the energy-producing center of the cell known as the mitochondria. CoQ10 is involved in the making of an important molecule known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP serves as the cell’s major energy source and drives a number of biological processes including muscle contraction and the production of protein. CoQ10 also works as an antioxidant.
Antioxidants are substances that scavenge free radicals, damaging compounds in the body that alter cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death. Free
radicals occur naturally in the body, but environmental toxins (including ultraviolet light, radiation, cigarette smoking, and air pollution) can also increase the number of these damaging particles. Free radicals are believed to contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of health problems including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as CoQ10 can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.
CoQ10 boosts energy, enhances the immune system, and acts as an antioxidant. Clinical research suggests that using coenzyme Q10 supplements alone or in combination with other drug therapies and nutritional supplements may help prevent or treat some of the following conditions:
Researchers believe that the beneficial effect of CoQ10 in the prevention and treatment of heart disease is due to its ability to improve energy production in cells, inhibit blood clot formation, and act as an antioxidant. One important clinical study, for example, found that people who received daily CoQ10 supplements within 3 days of a heart attack were significantly less likely to experience subsequent heart attacks and chest pain. In addition, these same patients were less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not receive the supplements.
Heart failure (HF)
Levels of CoQ10 are low in people with congestive heart failure (HF), a debilitating disease that occurs when the heart is not able to pump blood effectively. This can cause blood to pool in parts of the body, such as the lungs and legs. Information from several clinical studies suggests that CoQ10 supplements help reduce swelling in the legs, enhance breathing by reducing fluid in the lungs, and increase exercise capacity in people with HF. Not all clinical studies agree, however. As a result, some experts conclude that CoQ10 supplements do not contribute any benefit to the usual conventional treatment for HF. More conclusive research will help resolve the debate.
High blood pressure
Several clinical studies involving small numbers of people suggest that CoQ10 may lower blood pressure. However, it may take 4 – 12 weeks before any beneficial effect is observed. More research with greater numbers of people is needed to assess the value of CoQ10 in the treatment of high blood pressure.
Levels of CoQ10 tend to be lower in people with high cholesterol compared to healthy individuals of the same age. In addition, certain cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins (such as atorvastatin, cerivastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin) appear to deplete natural levels of CoQ10 in the body. Taking CoQ10 supplements can correct the deficiency caused by statin medications without affecting the medication’s positive effects on cholesterol levels.
CoQ10 supplements may improve heart health and blood sugar and help manage high cholesterol and high blood pressure in individuals with diabetes. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease are all common problems associated with diabetes. Despite some concern that CoQ10 may cause a sudden and dramatic drop in blood sugar (called hypoglycemia), two recent clinical studies of people with diabetes given CoQ10, 200 mg 2 times daily, showed no hypoglycemic response. If you have diabetes, talk to your doctor or registered dietitian before using CoQ10.
Heart damage caused by chemotherapy
Several clinical studies suggest that CoQ10 may help prevent heart damage caused by certain chemotherapy drugs (namely adriamycin or other athracycline medications). More clinical studies are needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of CoQ10 in preventing heart damage in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Clinical research indicates that introducing CoQ10 prior to heart surgery, including bypass surgery and heart transplantation, can reduce damage caused by free radicals, strengthen heart function, and lower the incidence of irregular heart beat (arrhythmias) during the recovery phase.
Studies of women with breast cancer suggest that CoQ10 supplements (in addition to conventional treatment and a nutritional regimen including other antioxidants and essential fatty acids) may shrink tumors, reduce pain associated with the condition, and cause partial remission in some individuals. It is important to recognize that the beneficial effects these women experienced cannot be attributed to CoQ10 alone. Additional antioxidants used in these studies include vitamins C, E, and selenium.
Periodontal (gum) disease
Gum disease is a widespread problem that is associated with swelling, bleeding, pain, and redness of the gums. Clinical studies have reported that people with gum disease tend to have low levels of CoQ10 in their gums. In a few clinical studies involving small numbers of subjects, CoQ10 supplements caused faster healing and tissue repair. CoQ10 is used in mouth rinse products for this condition. Additional studies in humans are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of CoQ10 when used together with traditional therapy for periodontal disease.
Preliminary clinical studies also suggest that CoQ10 may:
- Improve immune function in individuals with immune deficiencies (such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS) and chronic infections (such as yeast, bacteria, and viral infections)
- Increase sperm motility leading to enhanced fertility
- Be used as part of the treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease
- Reduce damage from stroke
- Boost athletic performance
- Enhance physical activity in people with fatigue syndromes
- Improve exercise tolerance in individuals with muscular dystrophy
- Improve symptoms of tinnitus, or ringing in the ears
- Be beneficial in cosmetics for healthy skin
- Delay the aging process and increase longevity
Policosanol for Cholesterol Regulation–Serum and Liver Levels
The body uses various mechanisms to regulate cholesterol levels. Similarly, nutrients act in different ways. Policosanol acts at the level of cholesterol biosynthesis.
Policosanol (or polycosanol) is the generic term for a natural extract of plant waxes. It is used as a nutritional supplement intended to lower LDL cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol) and increase HDL cholesterol (“good” or “healthy” cholesterol) and to help prevent atherosclerosis,
Policosanol is a mixture of a few fatty alcohols derived from the waxes of such plants as sugar cane and yams, as well as beeswax. The most prevalent alcohol in policosanol is octacosanol, followed by triacontanol.
There is a much lower concentration of several other fatty alcohols: behenyl alcohol, lignoceryl alcohol, ceryl alcohol, 1-heptacosanol, 1-nonacosanol, 1-dotriacontanol, and geddyl alcohol.
Modulations of HMG-CoA reductase and bile acid absorption inhibition have been proposed as mechanisms.
1. The Expert Panel. Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection. JAMA. 1993;269:3015-3023.
2. Martin-Jadraque R, Tato F, Mostaza JM. Effectiveness of low-dose crystalline nicotinic acid in men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Arch Int Med. 1996;156:1081-1088.
3. Alderman JD, Pasternak RC, Sacks FM, Smith HS, Monrad ES, Grossman W. Effect of a modified, well-tolerated niacin regimen on serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio. Am J Cardiol. 1989;64:725-730.
4. Vega GL, Grundy SM. Lipoprotein responses to treatment with lovastatin, gemfibrozil, and nicotinic acid in normolipidemic patients with hypoalphlipoproteinemia. Arch Int Med. 1994;154:73-82.
5. Ring EFJ, Porto LO, Bacon PA. Quantitative thermal imaging to assess inositol nicotinate treatment for Raynaud’s syndrome. J Int Med Res. 1981;9:393-400.
6. O’Hara J, Jolly PN, Nicol CG. The therapeutic efficacy of inositol hexanicotinate (Hexopal®) in intermittent claudication: A controlled trial. Br J Clin Pract. 1988;42:377-383.
7. Murphy R. The effect of inositol hexanicotinate (Hexopal) in patients with Raynaud’s syndrome. Clin Trials J. 1985;22:521-529.
8. Kiff RS. Does inositol hexanicotinate (Hexopal) influence intermittent claudication? Br J Clin Pract. 1988;42:141-145.
9. Head A. Treatment of intermittent claudication with inositol nicotinate. Practitioner. 1986;230:49-54.
10. McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Harris S, Chinchili VM. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustain- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. JAMA. 1994;271:672-677.
11. Welsh AL, Ede M. Inositol hexanicotinate for improve nicotinic acid therapy. Int Record Med. 1961;174:9-15.
12. Hammerl H, Kraenzyl CH, Sudlar M. Metabolic studies for determination of the action mechanism of a ß-sympathometic. Wein Klin Woschenschr. 1968;80:269.
13. Sommer H. Nicotinic acid levels in the blood and fibrinolysis under the influence of the hexanicotinic ester of m-inositol. Arzneim Forsch. 1975;15:1337.
14. Dorner VG, Fischer FW. The influence of m-inositol hexanicotinate ester on the serum lipids and lipoproteins. Arzneim Forsch. 1961;11:110-113.
15. El-Eneim AMA, Hafez YS, Salem H, Abdel M. The role of nicotinic acid and inositol hexanicotinate as anticholesterolemic and antilipemic agents. Nutr Reports Int. 1983;28:899-911.
16. Mercier J, Gavend MR, Dessaigne S. Effect of inositol and its derivatives on hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Cong Union Therap Intern (Brussels). 1963;8:11.
17. Kruse W, Kruse W, Raetzer H, et al. Nocturnal inhibition of lipolysis in man by nicotinic acid and derivatives. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1979;16:11-15.
18. Hutt V, Wechsler JG, Klor HU, Ditschuneit H. On the effect of a combination of clofibrate and inositol hexanicotinate on lipids and lipoproteins in primary hyperlipoproteinemia types IIa, IV, and V. Arzneim Forsch. 1983;33:776-779.
19. Wechsler JG, Hutt V, Kloer H-U, Ditschuneit H. Lipids and lipoproteins in hyperlipidemia type IIa during treatment with different lipid lowering drugs. Artery. 1980;8:519-529.
1. ^ Marinangeli CP, Kassis AN, Jain D, Ebine N, Cunnane SC, Jones PJ (2007). “Comparison of composition and absorption of sugarcane policosanols” (abstract). Br. J. Nutr. 97 (2): 381–8. doi:10.1017/S0007114507336763. PMID 17298709. http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0007114507336763.
2. ^ Ohta Y, Ohashi K, Matsura T, Tokunaga K, Kitagawa A, Yamada K (2008). “Octacosanol attenuates disrupted hepatic reactive oxygen species metabolism associated with acute liver injury progression in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride”. J Clin Biochem Nutr 42 (2): 118–25. doi:10.3164/jcbn.2008017. PMID 18385828.
3. ^ Singh DK, Li L, Porter TD (2006). “Policosanol inhibits cholesterol synthesis in hepatoma cells by activation of AMP-kinase”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 318 (3): 1020–6. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.107144. PMID 16714400. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16714400.
4. ^ Ng CH, Leung KY, Huang Y, Chen ZY (2005). “Policosanol has no antioxidant activity in human low-density lipoprotein but increases excretion of bile acids in hamsters”. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (16): 6289–93. doi:10.1021/jf051269a. PMID 16076108.
5. ^ a b Heiner K. Berthold, MD, PhD; Susanne Unverdorben, MD; Ralf Degenhardt, PhD; Michael Bulitta, Dipl-Stat; Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, MD (May 17, 2006). “Effect of Policosanol on Lipid Levels Among Patients With Hypercholesterolemia or Combined Hyperlipidemia” (abstract). Journal of the American Medical Association 295 (19): 2262–2269. doi:10.1001/jama.295.19.2262. PMID 16705107. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/295/19/2262. Retrieved 2006-10-03.
6. ^ Pons P, Rodriguez M, Robaina C, Illnait J, Mas R, Fernandez L, Fernandez JC. (1994). “Effects of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia and tolerability to treatment”. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 14 (1): 27–33. PMID 7927958.
7. ^ Chen JT, Wesley R, Shamburek RD, Pucino F, Csako G (2005). “Meta-analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol” (abstract). Pharmacotherapy 25 (2): 171–83. doi:10.1592/phco.188.8.131.52942. PMID 15767233. http://www.extenza-eps.com/doi/abs/10.1592/phco.184.108.40.206942.
8. ^ Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla (2004). “Cuba—innovation through synergy”. Nature Biotechnology 22: DC19–DC24. doi:10.1038/nbt1204supp-DC19. http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v22/n12s/fig_tab/nbt1204supp-DC19_T1.html.
Bratman, Steven, and David Kroll. The Natural Health Bible. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1999.
Chevallier, Andrew. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York: DK Publishing Inc., 1996.
Lininger, Skye, et. al. The Natural Pharmacy. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998.
Murray, Michael T. The Healing Power of Herbs. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1995.
Schauss, Alexander, and Suzanne Munson. Guggul (Commiphora mukul): Chemistry, Toxicology, and Efficacy of a Hypolipidemic and Hypocholesterolemic Agent.http://www.nat-med.com/archives/guggul.htm (2000).