Health Effects of Chromium

HealthEffectsofChromium:


Chromium(VI)
 is
 known
 to
 cause
 various
 health
 effects.
 When
 it
 is
 a
 compound
 in
 leather products,
 it
 can
 cause
 allergic
 reactions,
 such
 as
 skin
 rash.
 After
 breathing
 it
 in
 chromium(VI) can
 cause
 nose
 irritations
 and
 nosebleeds.

Other
 health
 problems
 that
 are
 caused
 by
 chromium (VI) are:

  • 
Skin
 rashes
  • 
Upset
 stomachs
 and
 ulcers
  • 
Respiratory
 problems
  • 
Weakened
 immune
 systems
  • 
Kidney
 and
 liver
 damage
  • 
Alteration
 of
 genetic
 material
  • 
Lung
 cancer
  • 
Death

To
 read
 more
 of
 this
 article,
 click
 here:

http://www.lenntech.com/periodicchartelements/cren.htm

Howcanchromiumaffectmyhealth?

Breathing
 high
 levels
 of
 chromium(VI)
 can
 cause
 irritation
 to
 the
 lining
 of
 the
 nose,
 nose
 ulcers,
 runny
 nose,
 and
 breathing
 problems,
 such
 as
 asthma,
 cough,
 shortness
 of
 breath,
 or
 wheezing.
 The
 concentrations
 of
 chromium
 in
 air
 that
 can
 cause
 these
 effects
 may
 be
 different
 for
 different
 types
 of
 chromium
 compounds,
 with
 effects
 occurring
 at
 much
 lower
 concentrations
 for
 chromium(VI)
 compared
 to
 chromium(III).

The
 main
 health
 problems
 seen
 in
 animals
 following
 ingestion
 of
 chromium(VI)
 compounds
 are
 irritation
 and
 ulcers
 in
 the
 stomach
 and
 small
 intestine
 and
 anemia.
 Chromium(III)
 compounds
 are
 much
 less
 toxic
 and
 do
 not
 appear
 to
 cause
 these
 problems.

Sperm
 damage
 and
damage
 to
the
 male
 reproductive
system
have 
also
been
 seen
 in
 laboratory animals exposed to chromium (VI).

Skin
 contact
 with
 certain
 chromium(VI)
 compounds
can
 cause
 skin
 ulcers.
 Some
 people
 are
 extremely
 sensitive
 to
 chromium(VI)
 or
 chromium(III).
 Allergic
 reactions
 consisting
 of
  severe
redness 
 and
 swelling
 of
 the
 skin
 have
 been
 noted.

To
 read
 more:
 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts7.html#bookmark05


From
 The
 Agency
 for
 Toxic
 Substances 
&
 Disease 
 Registry

Chromium  Compounds

Hazard Summary – Created in April 1992; Revised in January 2000

Chromium
 occurs
 in
 the
 environment
 primarily
 in
 two
 valence
 states,
 trivalent
 chromium
 (Cr
III)
 and
 hexavalent
 chromium
 (Cr
VI).

 Exposure
 may
 occur
 from
 natural
 or
 industrial
 sources
 of
 chromium.

 Chromium
 III
 is
 much
 less
 toxic
 than
 chromium
 (VI).

 The
 respiratory
 tract
 is
 also
 the
 major
 target
 organ
 for
 chromium
 (III)
 toxicity,
 similar
 to
 chromium
 (VI).
 Chromium
 (III)
 is
 an
 essential
 element
 in
 humans.

 The
 body
 can
 detoxify
 some
 amount
 of
 chromium
 (VI)
 to
 chromium
 (III).

The
 respiratory
 tract
 is
 the
 major
 target
 organ
 for
 chromium
 (VI)
 toxicity,
 for
 acute
 (short‐term) and
 chronic
 (long‐term)
 inhalation
 exposures.
 Shortness
 of
 breath,
 coughing,
 and
 wheezing were
 reported
 from
 a
 case
 of
 acute
 exposure
 to
 chromium
 (VI),
 while
 perforations
 and
 ulcerations
 of
 the
 septum,
 bronchitis,
 decreased
 pulmonary
 function,
 pneumonia,
 and
 other respiratory
 effects
 have
 been
 noted
 from
 chronic
 exposure.

 Human
 studies
 have
 clearly
 established
 that
 inhaled
 chromium
 (VI)
 is
 a
 human
 carcinogen,
 resulting
 in
 an
 increased
 risk
 of
 lung
 cancer.

 Animal
 studies
 have
 shown
 chromium
 (VI)
 to
 cause
 lung
 tumors
 via
 inhalation
 exposure.

Source: Environmental Protection Agency
 url:
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/chromium.html


Chemicals of Concern:Chromium 6

The
 film
 “Erin
 Brockovich”
 starring
 Julia
 Roberts
 drew
 widespread
 attention
 to
 Chromium‐6.
 Also
 known
 as
 hexavalent
chromium,
 chromium‐6
 is
 known
 to
 cause
 cancer
 and
 birth
 defects.

In
 contrast,
the
 naturally
 occurring
 Chromium‐ 3
 is
 vital
 to
 human
 health.
 Chomium‐3
 is
 found
 in
 air,
 water,
 rocks,
 soil,
 and
 certain
 foods.
 As
 an
 essential
 trace
 mineral,
 humans
 require
 chromium
 in
 very
 small
 amounts.
 It
 is
 found
 in
 such
 foods
 as
 broccoli,
 cheese,
 meats,
 cereal,
 brewer’s
 yeast,
 whole
 grains,
 and
 mushrooms.

In
 contrast
 to
 nutritional
 chromium, Chromium‐6 
can 
cause
 severe
 health
 side
 effects.
 Often
 referred
 to
 as
 industrial
 chromium, Chromium‐6
 chemically
 reacts
 differently
 to
 other
molecules.

To
 read
 more
 about
 the
 hazards
 and
 environmental
 processes
 of
 Chromium
 6, click
 here:

http://www.etc.org/technologicalandenvironmentalissues/chemicalsofconcern/chromium_6/


Source: Hazardous
 Waste
 Resource
 Center, “Technology
 and
 Environmental
 Issues”

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